Nancy Fraser –
How should we understand the crisis of the current moment? Is the election of President Trump a temporary aberration or does it reflect deeper political trends—both in the United States and elsewhere?
In a recently published essay in American Affairs, I argue that the defining features of Trump’s agenda did not come out of nowhere. What enabled his ascent was first, the rise, and then, the unraveling, of what I call progressive neoliberalism. Progressive neoliberalism tied a finance-centered political economy to a progressive politics of recognition. Grafting neoliberal economics onto mainstream liberal currents of apparently egalitarian social movements, such as feminism, anti-racism, multiculturalism, and LGBTQ rights, it forged a hegemonic bloc that dominated American politics for several decades. Beyond the United States, progressive-neoliberal formations governed many other liberal democracies through center-left parties that made similar deals with bankers and bondholders to gain or maintain power.
Progressive neoliberalism’s main competitor was what I call reactionary neoliberalism, which tied an exclusionary politics of recognition to the same neoliberal political economy.While reactionary neoliberalism was defeated by progressive neoliberalism, it offered no alternative to the latter’s project of Goldman-Sachsifying the US economy. Absent any organized opposition on a national scale, progressive neoliberals from Bill Clinton to Barack Obama were free to promote policies that metastasized finance and gutted manufacturing.They eviscerated unions and drove down real wages, proliferated precarious service-sector jobs and promoted predatory debt to enable the purchase of cheap stuff produced elsewhere. The result was to dramatically worsen the life conditions of the bottom two-thirds of Americans, especially (but not only) in rustbelt, southern, and rural communities, even as soaring stock markets fattened not just the one percent but also the upper reaches of the professional-managerial class. In due course, many harmed by these policies came to reject not only neoliberal political economy, but also the more inclusive view of recognition they associated with it.