Joanne Meyerowitz –
Sam Moyn’s Not Enough gives us a sweeping account of more than two centuries of the political quest for economic equality. His history locates early calls among the Jacobins who demanded fair distribution during the French Revolution. It moves through the nineteenth-century era of economic liberalism in Europe, when hopes for economic equality languished and human rights referred to individual liberties, and picks up in the early twentieth century when welfare states revived the quest for equality with an accompanying language of “social rights.” Then for a brief moment in the mid-1970s, the push for equality turned global as an imagined “welfare world” with international distributive justice. All of which collapsed in our current neoliberal era of the past 40 or so years with its more limited vision of human rights ascendant and its stunning disparities in wealth. Moyn contrasts equality with its paler cousin sufficiency. In recent decades, he argues, the uninspiring goal of sufficiency—a bare minimum for the impoverished—has shunted aside the quest for a more robust equality.
Moyn’s a master of nuance—he’s an impressively talented qualifier—and the abbreviated plot line I just tracked erases his subtlety entirely. (Apologies for that.) Suffice it to say for now that Moyn shows us moments of exceptional promise in the past, all the while acknowledging the massive blindspots of earlier historical actors. He notes repeatedly that the early welfare state redistributions were built on gender, racial, and imperial hierarchies that excluded most people from their material benefits. His book could be (and in some ways is) a history of a world we have lost, but it’s also an impassioned call for the just world we have not yet had.