Emily Villano —
Few cases were as difficult for me to initially grasp as Mullane v. Central Hanover Bank & Trust Co. (1950), a common case in first-year civil procedure courses. The appellant was a guardian ad litem, the opinion parsed the differences between jurisdiction in personam and in rem, and I woefully had never taken Latin.
My confusion also stemmed from the case’s many reversals of expectations. Mullane can be thought of as a proto-class-action lawsuit: it involved the aggregation and binding of multiple claimants to the judgment of a court—despite the fact that not everyone actively participated in (or even had awareness of) the lawsuit. Today, class actions are paradigmatic tools for making power accountable to people: such as when consumers band together to sue corporations, or prisoners seek reform of prison conditions.
Yet in Mullane, the original plaintiff was a bank. And rather than resisting the aggregation of claims, the bank sought the Court’s blessing for a procedural mechanism to bind absent parties. Herein lies Mullane’s special fascination: the Supreme Court first relaxed constitutional due process requirements in order to aggregate claims—bending central concepts like “notice” and the “opportunity to be heard”—to feed New York’s growing mid-century financial sector.
The story behind Mullane reveals a great deal about civil procedure: such as its role in shaping our political and economic landscape and its chameleon-like capacity for good and ill. Mullane, therefore, particularly lends itself to an LPE approach. Continue reading