What does civil procedure have to do with LPE? On the one hand, you might think of procedural rules as only instrumentally important. They don’t dictate our obligations, like tort law or criminal law, or define the terms of economic organization, like property law. But anyone wondering why procedure gets a prime place in the first-year law curriculum should consider the famous warning of Congressman John Dingell, who was heavily involved in landmark accomplishments of substantive policymaking like Medicare, the Endangered Species Act, and the Clean Air Act. In Dingell’s words, “If I let you write the substance and you let me write the procedure, I’ll screw you every time.”
In other words, procedure is power. Procedural rules are at the root of how legal institutions make decisions: who gets into court, what burden they must meet to prove their claims, what information they can find out, who decides which party is right, what remedies may be on the table, and more. This means that the set of procedures the law employs heavily influences the ultimate outcomes of any policy choice. Because legal procedures play such an important mediating role between political choices and actual outcomes, understanding those procedures is a key component of the study of law and political economy.
This post focuses on just one aspect of legal procedure—the idea of formal equality in legal proceedings. I’ll explain how the notion of “procedural equality” stands in tension with inequalities that exist outside of legal institutions and provide a few quick examples of this tension in contemporary doctrinal debates. Finally, I suggest two approaches that students of LPE can take to these kind of debates: one with an eye toward understanding what the law does in the world, and the other with an eye toward considering how the law can be used and improved.